VUME Upper Mantle of the Earth

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China Earthquakes.



2012 Northern Italy Earthquakes.



Ashgabat earthquake 1948.

Ashgabat Quake 1948. Alpine Belt.

Crustal and Deep Earthquakes





Wadati-Benioff zones Many natural phenomena that occur on the Earth's surface due to processes occurring in the upper mantle of the Earth. Some of them are Crustal and Deep Earthquakes. Earthquakes - clear evidence of the inner life of our Earth. An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacing the ground. When a large earthquake epicenter is located offshore, the seabed sometimes suffers sufficient displacement to cause a tsunami. The shaking in earthquakes can also trigger landslides and occasionally volcanic activity. The majority of tectonic earthquakes originate at the ring of fire in depths not exceeding tens of kilometers. Earthquakes occurring at a depth of less than 70 km are classified as 'shallow-focus' earthquakes, while those with a focal-depth between 70 and 300 km are commonly termed 'mid-focus' or 'intermediate-depth' earthquakes.





In subduction zones, where older and colder oceanic crust descends beneath another tectonic plate, deep-focus earthquakes may occur at much greater depths (ranging from 300 up to 700 kilometers). These seismically active areas of subduction are known as Wadati-Benioff zones.
Crustal Earthquakes. Lower-crustal earthquakes
Deep Earthquakes
Earthquake Clusters. Aftershocks
Earthquake Swarms. Earthquake Storms. Remotely Triggered Earthquakes
Seismotectonics
Regional Tectonics
Geomorphology
Focal Mechanism


The Largest Earthquakes.

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New York Earthquake 2011.



2011 Sendai earthquake and tsunami.





2015 Nepal Earthquake.